The Book of Programming Ideas document contains 64 example programming exercises for students to try. The sections cover everything from basic input and output exercises through to subroutines, functions, and file handling. There are Python and Java versions of the document, although all exercises are written to be language-independent.
This book contains 27 programming tasks for students. They range from simple assignments that output messages and variables to the screen, to more complex programs to play simple games or solve common problems. Each activity lists the required programming knowledge (e.g. loops) to complete it. This is a really useful booklet for starter or extension tasks, allowing students to work at their own pace. The activities are written so that they are language independent.
This booklet was created by Stuart Lucas and Michael Kölling and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike licence. You can download the PDF version and a Microsoft Publisher version, allowing you to edit the booklet.
A clear explanation of the differences between the many programming languages available. Near the beginning of the video is an excellent diagram that shows machine code, low level languages, high level languages, and human languages on the same continuum, to help you understand how they differ. It then goes into more detail about the benefits and drawbacks of each language type.
A good follow up to this video is Translators (Assembler, Compiler & Interpreter), created by the same person.
The relationships between translators, compilers, and interpreters confuses many students. Throw in assemblers and it can be hard to understand anything about this topic. This video tries to address that confusion, with clear explanations and lots of clear examples.
I'd recommend watching the video Machine, Assembly & High-Level Programming Languages (from the same creator) first, particularly if you're unclear about the difference between assembly language and higher level languages like Python.
Most pupils will be familar with using an Integrated Development Environment, but many will struggle to explain the benefits they provide. This is particularly true if they have never used a different environment. This video explains the IDE features we might take for granted: project management, syntax highlighting, code completion, and more.
Testing is a topic that is often overlooked in Computer Science courses. This video examines the purpose of testing, different types of testing, and different types of test data (normal, abnormal, extreme). It also explains defensive programming techniques - techniques that can be used to avoid bugs in the first place.