The Book of Programming Ideas document contains 64 example programming exercises for students to try. The sections cover everything from basic input and output exercises through to subroutines, functions, and file handling. There are Python and Java versions of the document, although all exercises are written to be language-independent.
These Java Helpsheets cover various aspects of the language including if statements, data types, loops (while and for), and the Scanner class. Each sheet summarises the concept and provides several example lines of code.
The sheets can be printed out on A4 or A3 paper and make excellent wall displays to help students who are new to programming.
This resource was created by Matt Lowe and is released under the CC-BY-ND licence.
A clear explanation of the differences between the many programming languages available. Near the beginning of the video is an excellent diagram that shows machine code, low level languages, high level languages, and human languages on the same continuum, to help you understand how they differ. It then goes into more detail about the benefits and drawbacks of each language type.
A good follow up to this video is Translators (Assembler, Compiler & Interpreter), created by the same person.
The relationships between translators, compilers, and interpreters confuses many students. Throw in assemblers and it can be hard to understand anything about this topic. This video tries to address that confusion, with clear explanations and lots of clear examples.
I'd recommend watching the video Machine, Assembly & High-Level Programming Languages (from the same creator) first, particularly if you're unclear about the difference between assembly language and higher level languages like Python.